Most women who were neither very young nor very old were pregnant about half the time and were looking after young children or dealing with grief the rest of it.
The great age of witch trials, which ran between 1550 and 1700, fascinates and repels in equal measure. Over the course of a century and a half, 80,000 people were tried for witchcraft and half of them were executed, often burned alive.
The EU is stepping up its campaign to counter disinformation and fake news from Russia by spending more than €1m a year on its specialist anti-propaganda unit.
For centuries, the courts of France, Italy, Switzerland, and other nearby countries tried pigs, dogs, rats, grasshoppers, and snails for crimes against people, property, and God.
Women dressed as men to escape poverty and follow adventure on land, and women pirates did it at sea.
The ‘New Man’ might be dominant now, but over the centuries attitudes have repeatedly changed in response to wider cultural shifts and they remain complex and contradictory today.
These burials remind us of a basic and long-running motivation: be sure to stop the dead from rising again.
A research team has identified urban expansion as the reason for the low amounts of bio-available oxygen in numerous European lakes in past centuries.
There is no unique English or British culture or history distinct from the influence and presence of continental Europeans and other foreigners.
It has become known as the first genocide of the 20th century: tens of thousands of men, women and children shot, starved, and tortured to death by German troops as they put down rebellious tribes in what is now Namibia. For more than a century the atrocities have been largely forgotten in Europe, and often in much of Africa too. The killings there and in its territories on the east coast of the continent are seen by some historians as important steps towards the Holocaust in Europe during the second world war.
The European Union's Competitiveness Council has recommended all scientific papers be made “open access” by 2020, meaning that scientific publications on the results of research supported by public and public-private funds must be freely accessible to everyone.
The European Parliament's civil liberties committee LIBE has voted in favor of collecting and storing information about all air passengers traveling into or out of the EU. The so-called Passenger Name Record (PNR) scheme requires the storage of all data collected by airlines about passengers – including sensitive and personal information. Civil rights groups have been outraged at some of the proposals.
Google tops the list of companies lobbying in Brussels, according to a report published by Transparency International. The evidence suggests there is a strong link between the amount of money you spend and the number of meetings you get. Those organisations with the biggest lobby budgets get a lot of access, particularly on the financial, digital and energy portfolios.
The global economy uses the equivalent of one and a half planets’ worth of resources to produce global output and absorb waste. Estimates put this figure at two planets’ worth of resources by the 2030s, say MEPs. Europe is more dependent on imported resources than any other region in the world and many resources will be exhausted in the relatively short term.
Banks in southern countries, including France, Spain and Italy, are highly vulnerable to failure. Banks in northern countries appear to be more resilient.
The ‘Historians for Britain’ campaign believes that Britain’s unique history sets it apart from the rest of Europe.