Today’s generation doesn’t have the luxury of being able to argue that it was never warned or did not understand the consequences of where lies will take you.
Most women who were neither very young nor very old were pregnant about half the time and were looking after young children or dealing with grief the rest of it.
The settlers claimed their antipathy for slavery contrasted them from the rest of the world, especially their colonial competitor Spain, already infamous for working Native Americans to death. Yet after the Pequot War of 1637, Puritans shipped captured Pequots to bondage in a small Puritan community on the coast of Nicaragua called Providence Island.
he spectrum of organisations to which former suffragettes pinned their allegiances after the war, ranging from the British Union of Fascists to the Communist Party – and everything in between – prove that the movement was far from homogeneous.
As Napoleon ranged across Europe, it became difficult for Beethoven to regard him with anything but contempt. No friend to liberty or to order, he was now little more than a conqueror.
Andrei Zheleznyakov was working on chemical weapons in the 1980s when a hood malfunction exposed him to the deadly nerve agent.
The actual idea of a sliding fastener is attributed to Elias Howe, an American inventor who worked on the first sewing machine. In 1851 he patented his idea, but he did nothing with the patent, too busy promoting the sewing machine.
in the face of encroaching industrialism, handmade lace enjoyed a frilly revival—and masked fears about the commodification of female labor.
Russian nobles invented many of the same kinds of racial arguments to defend serfdom that American slave-owners used to justify slavery.
Willis Hawley and Reed Smoot have haunted Congress since the 1930s when they were the architects of the Smoot-Hawley tariff bill, among the most decried pieces of legislation in US history and a bill blamed by some for not only for triggering the Great Depression but also contributing to the start of the second world war.
Starting in the 1940s, Luhn devised machines and schemes for parsing information, most notably the now widely used hashing algorithm, which he suggested as a way to sort both numbers and text. Because organizing and searching for data are such widespread problems in computing, hashing algorithms have become crucial to cryptography, graphics, telecommunications, and biology.
Even though the vast majority of hackers do not fit the negative stereotype that people hold as truth, over-generalizations of the few hurt the reputation of the many. Research points to three identifiable and consistent subcultural values gathered from hackers – technology, secrecy, and mastery.
The great age of witch trials, which ran between 1550 and 1700, fascinates and repels in equal measure. Over the course of a century and a half, 80,000 people were tried for witchcraft and half of them were executed, often burned alive.
Researchers saw disparities in wealth mount with the rise of agriculture, specifically the domestication of plants and large animals, and increased social organization.
Research shows that hunter-gatherer storytellers were essential in promoting co-operative and egalitarian values before comparable mechanisms evolved in larger agricultural societies, such as moralising high-gods. Storytellers were also more popular than even the best foragers, had greater reproductive success, and were more likely to be co-operated with by other members of the camp.
Recent discoveries show that humans left Africa multiple times prior to 60,000 years ago, and that they interbred with other hominins in many locations across Eurasia.
The people of ancient Lebanon – the Phoenicians – had a profound impact on the history of the Mediterranean between c.1550 and 300 bc.
Though these teachers worked within institutions designed to annihilate Native American culture, they often resisted policies of assimilation, encouraging pride and trying to preserve Native heritage.
A husband and wife were considered to be one person, the woman no longer a legal individual in and of herself. Coverture essentially meant women and their property were owned by their husbands. This is why the tradition of woman taking her husband’s name in marriage was almost exclusively English (and English colonial) for some 400 years before 1800.
In what could be considered the first business how-to book, an Italian merchant from the 1400s advises leaders to be charitable, ethical, and treat people fairly; be modest; look for the right qualities in a wife; be selective in deals; and retire at 50, when “natural fervor abates, his blood calms down, his intelligence dims and his memory becomes less quick, so that he risks committing many errors in his business.”