Just 90 minutes from Toronto, residents of a First Nations community try to improve the water situation as the beverage company extracts from their land.
The settlers claimed their antipathy for slavery contrasted them from the rest of the world, especially their colonial competitor Spain, already infamous for working Native Americans to death. Yet after the Pequot War of 1637, Puritans shipped captured Pequots to bondage in a small Puritan community on the coast of Nicaragua called Providence Island.
Though these teachers worked within institutions designed to annihilate Native American culture, they often resisted policies of assimilation, encouraging pride and trying to preserve Native heritage.
Some Army officers in the Great Plains in the late 1860s and 1870s, including William Sherman and Richard Dodge, as well as the Secretary of the Interior in the 1870s, Columbus Delano, foresaw that if the bison were extinct, the Indians in the Great Plains would have to surrender to the reservation system. Colonel Dodge said in 1867, “Every buffalo dead is an Indian gone,” and Delano wrote in his 1872 annual report, “The rapid disappearance of game from the former hunting-grounds must operate largely in favor of our efforts to confine the Indians to smaller areas, and compel them to abandon their nomadic customs.”
Queen Victoria promised an annuity to each indigenous person around Lake Huron to use their territory. Now a legal case seeks to bring that treaty up to date.
According to the Center on Juvenile Crime and Justice, Native Americans are the most likely race to experience police violence in the US.
History simmers to the top of many conversations here – from the systemic destruction and criminalisation of Lakota culture through federal laws in the late 19th century, to the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee, in the reservation’s south, where up to 300 Lakota men, women and children were mowed down by US cavalrymen, their frozen bodies dumped in a mass grave days later.
Amid growing online attacks on Canada’s indigenous peoples – laced with vitriol, stereotypes and even death threats – a prominent First Nations leader is urging the government to crack down on hate speech.
The Havasupai – “people of the blue-green waters” – live in Supai Village, located at the bottom of the Grand Canyon. Today their lives and water are being threatened by international uranium mining companies because the US government and its 1872 mining law permit uranium mining on federal lands that surround the Grand Canyon.
A Quebec member of parliament has addressed Canada’s House of Commons in Mohawk, in what is believed to be the first time the indigenous language has been used officially in the legislature since it was established in 1867.
Redefining fine cuisine using only indigenous (Native American) ingredients.
When the colonists landed, they did not find a vast empty frontier in the New World, but an ancient civilisation spread out across North America. The commitment to representative democracy, checks and balances, the notion of freedom and natural rights, the value of public opinion and consent and the sovereignty of the people all derive from Native American traditions. In Iroquois culture, no man has the right to rule another. Instead, the tribes are governed by the Great Law of Peace for the well-being of everyone.
Scarcity of resources and violence correlates. When people are stressed out and worried about protecting the group, they are willing to be aggressive. Violence is about resources for the group.
Ancient Southwestern Pueblo people, who had no written language or written number system, were able to build sophisticated architectural complexes.
U.S.policymakers envisioned an ideal scenario in which Indians would willingly sign treaties ceding their lands in exchange for assistance in becoming civilized. But what if Indians refused to cede their lands? What if they rejected the “gift” of civilization? At that point, U.S. policymakers consistently stated, Indians would be subject to war—not the limited warfare that European legal theorists had agreed was acceptable between civilized nations but a war of extermination.
The idea that the United States has always been a bastion of religious freedom is reassuring—and utterly at odds with the historical record. From the earliest arrival of Europeans on America’s shores, religion has often been a cudgel, used to discriminate, suppress and even kill the foreign, the “heretic” and the “unbeliever”—including the “heathen” natives.
Canada's First Nations youth are five to six times more likely to die by suicide than their non-indigenous counterparts. The Wapekeka community was among those most affected by Ralph Rowe, a man described by one crown prosecutor as “likely one of the most prolific pedophiles this country has ever seen”. In the 1970s and 80s, Rowe, an Anglican priest, pilot and Boy Scout leader, would regularly fly into remote First Nations communities and take young boys camping. He was eventually convicted of more than 50 counts of indecent assault against young boys. A 2015 documentary estimates that Rowe may have abused as many as 500 indigenous boys.
Human occupation is usually associated with deteriorated landscapes, but new research shows that 13,000 years of repeated occupation by British Columbia's coastal First Nations has had the opposite effect, enhancing temperate rainforest productivity.
Of the $1.5 million that California spent on 24 different Indian-killing militia campaigns between 1850 and 1861, Congress paid the state back all but $200,000. Reservations were established in the mid-19th century, and the conditions there were so brutal, Adolf Hitler is said to have used them in part as a blueprint for his Final Solution.
A disproportionate number of Canada's indigenous women have gone missing or been murdered in recent decades, and suicide attempts have risen dramatically in some communities.